ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR DF #2 ROOF RAFTERS (DF- ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR DF #2 CEILING JOISTS (DF-LARCH) Dead Load (up to 10 psf) Live Load: 20 psf (TABLE 2308.10.2) (Concentrated Live Load), a . ULL (Uniform Live Load) and . UDL (Uniform Dead Load) be placed on the typical ILD’s shown below to maximize the response functions? 37. Typical End Shear (Reaction) ILD. Typical Interior Beam Shear ILD Typical Interior Bending Moment ILD. 38. Possible Truss Member ILD. Live Loads for Highway and Railroad Bridges

A reduction shall not be permitted where the live load exceeds 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2) except that the design live load for members supporting two or more floors is permitted to be reduced by a maxi- mum of 20 percent. Exception: For uses other than storage, where approved, additional live load reductions shall be Given: A floor joist is to be designed to meet a live load deflection criteria of L/360 and a total load deflection of L/240. The joist specified is a 2x10 DF/L #1. The span is 15 feet. The Uniform Design Live Load is 78 plf and the Uniform Design Dead Load is 30 plf. Find: a) What is the actual live load deflection of the member and does it meet

Structural Design NSCP

This part is quite simple. Assume the thickness of the slab for the design. You can find out the dead load per unit area since the density of the concrete is known. Let us take an example. Slab Thickness : 150mm Density of RCC : 2500 Kg/Cum. Dead (Concentrated Live Load), a . ULL (Uniform Live Load) and . UDL (Uniform Dead Load) be placed on the typical ILD’s shown below to maximize the response functions? 37. Typical End Shear (Reaction) ILD. Typical Interior Beam Shear ILD Typical Interior Bending Moment ILD. 38. Possible Truss Member ILD. Live Loads for Highway and Railroad Bridges

Effect of Live Load to Dead Load Ratio on the Reliability of RC Beam M. F. Wahid 1* , S.K. shill 2 and A. Hasan 3 The paper presents the reliability of RC beam designed following Bangladesh A reduction shall not be permitted where the live load exceeds 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2) except that the design live load for members supporting two or more floors is permitted to be reduced by a maxi- mum of 20 percent. Exception: For uses other than storage, where approved, additional live load reductions shall be

What is Live Load? Refers to loads that do, or can, change over time, such as people walking around a building (occupancy) or movable objects such as furniture. Live loads are variable as they depend on usage and capacity. However, design codes can provide equivalent loads for various structures. (Concentrated Live Load), a . ULL (Uniform Live Load) and . UDL (Uniform Dead Load) be placed on the typical ILD’s shown below to maximize the response functions? 37. Typical End Shear (Reaction) ILD. Typical Interior Beam Shear ILD Typical Interior Bending Moment ILD. 38. Possible Truss Member ILD. Live Loads for Highway and Railroad Bridges

Bottom Chord Live Load Concurrency and Truss Design

Structural Design NSCP. •Dead Load •Live Load • Usually roof live load governs unless snow drifts are considered Frost Heave • Condition where soil under footing freezes and exerts upward movement on the foundation • Bottom of Footings must be below frost depth to avoid this, E2397 / E2397M-19 Standard Practice for Determination of Dead Loads and Live Loads Associated with Vegetative (Green) Roof Systems dead load~ live load~ water ….

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR DF #2 ROOF RAFTERS (DF- ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR DF #2 CEILING JOISTS (DF-LARCH) Dead Load (up to 10 psf) Live Load: 20 psf (TABLE 2308.10.2) Dead load. Volume of beam 10.0 x 0.6 x 0.3 = 1.8 m 3 Unit weight of reinforced concrete = 24 kN/m 3 Therefore, dead load of beam = volume x unit weight = 1.8 m 3 x 24 kN/m 3 = 43.2 kN. Dead load on a structure is the result of the weight of the permanent components such …

The reason for the disparity between factors for dead load and live load, and thus the reason the loads are initially categorized as dead or live is because while it is not unreasonable to expect a large number of people ascending the staircase at once, it is less likely that the structure will experience much change in its permanent load. What is Dead Load? Deal load refers to loads that relatively don’t change over time, such as the weight of All permanent components of a building including walls, Beam, columns, flooring material etc) Fixed permanent equipment and fitting that are an integral part of the structure.(like plumbing, HVAC, etc.)

Given: A floor joist is to be designed to meet a live load deflection criteria of L/360 and a total load deflection of L/240. The joist specified is a 2x10 DF/L #1. The span is 15 feet. The Uniform Design Live Load is 78 plf and the Uniform Design Dead Load is 30 plf. Find: a) What is the actual live load deflection of the member and does it meet Dead, Live, Rain and Soil Lateral Loads 35 Exceptions to these requirements recognize the circumstances that are applicable in occupancies where the handrail or guard is inaccessible to the public. In particular, load condition 2 need not be considered in one- and two-family dwellings or in factory, industrial and storage occupancies

What is Dead Load? Deal load refers to loads that relatively don’t change over time, such as the weight of All permanent components of a building including walls, Beam, columns, flooring material etc) Fixed permanent equipment and fitting that are an integral part of the structure.(like plumbing, HVAC, etc.) I > 400 Sq.ft., the live load may be reduced according to the live load reduction equation: Element K L = L o {0.25 + (15 / √A I)} Where L = Reduced Live Load L o = Code specified design live load A I =Influence Area =K LL (A T) K LL = Live Load Element Factor (See Table) Table – Live load element factor, K LL LL Interior columns 4